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REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION OF FOREIGN REAL PERSONS IN TURKEY
Real estate acquisition of foreign real and legal persons has been regulated in the article 35 of the Land Registry Law numbered 2644 with law numbered 5444 and dated December 12,2005 which was established in the Official Gazette of 26046 numbered and dated January 7,2006. New fundamental principles was regulate with this new law for acquisition real estate of foreign real persons and and trade companies having legal personality and established in foreign countries according to the laws of these countries in Turkey.
New form of the article 35 of the Land registry Law is as follows:
Ã¢â‚¬Å“With the reservation of reciprocity and compliance with legal restrictions, foreign real person can acquire real estates for the purposes of using as residence or business aims in Turkey that are separated and registered for these purposes in the implemented development plans or localized development plans. The same conditions shall be stipulated in the establishment of limited real rights on real estates. The total area of the real estates and limited real rights on real estates that a real person of foreign nationality can acquire all over the country can not exceed 25.000 m2. Within the same conditions set out in this paragraph Council of Ministers is authorized to increase the area up to 30 hectares.
Companies having legal personality established in foreign countries according to the laws of these countries can acquire real estates and limited real rights on real estates in Turkey according to the provisions of special laws.
In case of establishing mortgage in Turkey in favor of foreign real persons and trading companies having legal personality established in foreign countries according to the laws of these countries the conditions and restrictions set out in first and second paragraphs shall not be applied.
With the exception of foreign real persons and trading companies having legal personality established in foreign countries according to the laws of these countries, no one can acquire real estates and limited real rights on real estates in Turkey.
For the real estates acquired through legal inheritance by citizens of a country that have reciprocity with Republic of Turkey, the conditions and restrictions set out in the first paragraph shall not be applied. For the real estates acquisition by means of transactions depending on death apart from legal inheritance, the conditions and restrictions set out in the above paragraphs shall be applied. Real estates and limited real rights on real estates acquired through legal inheritance by citizens of countries that do not have reciprocity with Republic of Turkey shall be liquidated after their transfer transactions are performed.
De jure and de facto circumstances shall be taken as basis in determination of reciprocity. In implementation of this principle for the citizens of countries that have not granted land ownership rights, it's stipulated that the rights granted by a foreign country for real estate acquisition to its own citizens should also be granted to citizens of the Republic of Turkey.
The Council of Ministers is authorized to determine the places where foreign real persons and trading companies having legal personality established in foreign countries according to the laws of these countries can not acquire real estates and limited real rights on real estates within the areas in terms of irrigation, energy, agriculture, mine, and protected areas, and belief and cultural featured areas and special protection areas and touchy areas due to flora and fauna features, strategic areas due to public interests and country security by means of the proposals of relevant public institutions and organizations with registry based coordinated maps and plans, and the rate of the areas where foreign real persons can acquire real estates not more than 5 per thousand according to the provinces and provincesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ areas. Proposals of the public institutions and organizations within these scope shall be examined, appreciated and submitted to the Council of Ministers by means of a commission that carries out studies within the authority set out in this paragraph and constitutes of relevant representatives of administration in the structure of the ministry that General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre is related to.
Map and coordinate values concerning the military forbidden zones, military and private security zones and strategic zones that are determined after the enforcement of this law and their alterations shall be given without any delay by the Ministry of National Defense to the ministry that General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre is related to.
The parcels needed to be expropriated or to be annotated on land register due to be in the areas determined in the above paragraphs shall be notified by relevant institutions to relevant Land Registry Offices.
The real estates and limited real rights on real estates acquired contrary to the provisions of this article or determination of misuse according to the purpose of acquisition without legal necessity shall be converted to value and paid to owner of unless the real estates liquidated by the owner within the period given by Ministry of Finance.Ã¢â‚¬Â
In the new regulation, instead of exact equivalent implementation of reciprocity principle, it's stipulated that the rights given by a foreign country to its own citizens or trade companies having legal personality and established according to its own laws, should also be given to citizens and trade companies of the Republic of Turkey.
The Council of Ministers expressed what should be understood from the reciprocity principle in its decision dated May 29, 1940 and numbered 2/13394. According to this decision, in addition to legislative regulation of reciprocity principle, practical applicability of it is also required for its existence. By this decision, in which it's taken into consideration that reciprocity in law will not indicate actual situation, restrictions encountered in a foreign country by the citizens of the Republic of Turkey, in case of their application, are wanted to be taken as a basis in implementation of reciprocity. Therefore, for the existence of reciprocity between our country and a foreign country about real estate acquisition, reciprocity must be both in law and in practice. According to this principle, for real estate acquisition of a foreign country's citizen or trade company in our country, the citizens and trade companies of the Republic of Turkey should also have the right to acquire real estate in this foreign country and this right must be accepted by laws and must be practically applicable.
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