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Romania – Self-Employment

Breakdown of how self-employment works for expats in Romania

Self-employment is possible for expats in Romania, but there are several legal requirements that must be met. As a self-employed person in Romania, you will need to register with the National Trade Register Office and obtain a fiscal identification number.

Detailed step-by-step guide on how an expat can register as self-employed in Romania

Here is a detailed step-by-step guide on how an expat can register as self-employed in Romania:

  1. Obtain a work visa: Expats must have a valid work visa to work in Romania. The work visa is typically sponsored by an employer, but self-employed individuals can also obtain one through the Romanian Embassy in their home country.

  2. Choose your legal structure: Before registering as self-employed in Romania, you must choose a legal structure for your business. You can choose between a sole proprietorship or a limited liability company (LLC). An LLC offers more legal protection, but it requires more time and money to set up.

  3. Obtain a fiscal identification number: To operate as a self-employed person in Romania, you must obtain a fiscal identification number from the National Agency for Fiscal Administration. You can do this online or in person at a local tax office. You will need to provide personal and business details, including your name, address, and business activities.

  4. Register with the National Trade Register Office: After obtaining your fiscal identification number, you must register with the National Trade Register Office. You can do this online or in person at a service center. You will need to provide personal and business details, including the name of the company, the legal structure, and a description of your business activities.

  5. Obtain necessary permits and licenses: Depending on the nature of your business, you may need to obtain additional permits and licenses from various government authorities. These may include a commercial registration certificate, an industrial registration certificate, or a municipal license.

Can you work as a digital nomad in Romania?

Yes, you can work as a digital nomad in Romania. However, you will need to obtain a work visa or a long-stay visa if you plan to stay in the country for more than 90 days.

Breakdown of how an expat can start a company in Romania

Starting a company in Romania can be a complex process, but it is possible for expats. The most common legal structure for businesses in Romania is a limited liability company (LLC).

Detailed step-by-step guide on how an expat can set up a company in Romania

Here is a detailed step-by-step guide on how an expat can set up a company in Romania:

  1. Choose your legal structure: The first step in setting up a company in Romania is to choose your legal structure. The most common structure for small and medium-sized businesses is a limited liability company (LLC). An LLC offers limited liability protection to the shareholders and requires a minimum share capital of RON 200 (approximately USD 50).

  2. Reserve a company name: Before registering your company, you must reserve a name for it. You can do this online through the National Trade Register Office’s website.

  3. Draft the company’s articles of association: The articles of association outline the company’s purpose, ownership structure, and governance. You can draft these yourself or hire a lawyer to do it for you.

  4. Deposit the share capital: To register your LLC, you must deposit the minimum share capital of RON 200 in a Romanian bank account. You will need to provide proof of this deposit when registering your company.

  5. Register your company: You can register your company online through the National Trade Register Office’s website or in person at a service center. You will need to provide personal and business details, including the name of the company, the legal structure, the address, and the shareholders.

  6. Obtain necessary permits and licenses: Depending on the nature of your business, you may need to obtain additional permits and licenses from various government authorities. These may include a commercial registration certificate, an industrial registration certificate, or a municipal license.

  7. Open a Romanian bank account: To receive payments and pay taxes, your company will need to have a Romanian bank account. You can do this online or in person at a bank branch. You will need to provide identification and proof of address.

  8. Register for tax: Your company must register for tax with the National Agency for Fiscal Administration. You can do this online or in person at their office. You will need to provide personal and business details, including the name of the company, the legal structure, and an estimate of your annual income.

  9. Obtain necessary visas and permits for your employees: If you plan to hire employees for your company, you will need to obtain necessary visas and permits for them to work in Romania.

Incentives or Programs for Expats in Romania

There are several incentives and programs to encourage expats to become self-employed or set up a company in Romania. These include:


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  1. Start-Up Nation Program: The Start-Up Nation Program is a government initiative that offers grants to small and medium-sized enterprises in Romania. The grants can be used for various purposes, including purchasing equipment and hiring employees.

  2. Co-Investment Fund: The Co-Investment Fund is a public-private partnership that provides financing and support to Romanian-owned and foreign-owned businesses in Romania.

  3. Investment Tax Credit: The Investment Tax Credit is a tax incentive that provides a credit to businesses that invest in certain regions or industries in Romania.

  4. Tax Incentives: Romania offers various tax incentives to businesses, including a reduced corporate income tax rate for small and medium-sized enterprises and tax exemptions for certain types of income.

In conclusion, self-employment and starting a business are viable options for expats in Romania. The process for registering as self-employed or setting up a company in Romania can be complex, but with the right guidance and support, it can be done. Additionally, there are several incentives and programs available to encourage expats to become self-employed or start a business in Romania.


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