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Spain – Citizenship

Spain allows for both citizenship by birth and citizenship by naturalization. People born in Spain can automatically become Spanish citizens if at least one of their parents is a Spanish citizen or if the parents are unknown or stateless. Foreigners can apply for Spanish citizenship by naturalization if they meet certain criteria.

To be eligible for citizenship by naturalization, you must meet the following requirements:

  • Be at least 18 years old
  • Have lived legally in Spain for 10 years, or five years if you are a refugee or stateless person, or two years if you are from a Spanish-American country, Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, Portugal or are of Sephardic origin
  • Be of good character
  • Have sufficient economic means to support yourself and your family
  • Pass the DELE A2 Spanish language test, unless you are from a Spanish-speaking country, or have completed studies in Spanish, or are from a country that has Spanish as an official language

Process of Applying for Citizenship in Spain

The process for applying for Spanish citizenship by naturalization can be divided into four stages:

  1. Residency: You must first become a legal resident of Spain and maintain your legal status throughout the process.

  2. Application: You must submit your application for citizenship to the Ministry of Justice. The application must include all required documentation, such as a birth certificate, a criminal record check, proof of economic means, and proof of residence.

  3. Review and Approval: The Ministry of Justice will review your application and may request additional information or documentation. If your application is approved, you will be invited to take the DELE A2 Spanish language test.

  4. Swearing-In Ceremony: After passing the language test, you will be invited to attend a swearing-in ceremony, where you will take an oath of loyalty to the Spanish Constitution and laws.

Advantages of Being Granted Citizenship in Spain

There are several advantages to being granted Spanish citizenship, including:

  1. Freedom of movement: As a citizen of an EU country, you can live, work and study in any other EU country without the need for a visa or work permit.

  2. Right to vote and run for office: As a citizen, you have the right to vote in Spanish national and local elections and to run for office in Spain.

  3. Access to social benefits: Citizens have access to a range of social benefits, such as healthcare, unemployment benefits, and pensions.

  4. Simplified travel: Citizens can travel with a Spanish passport, which can simplify travel arrangements and reduce visa requirements.

Rules Surrounding Dual Citizenship in Spain

Spain allows dual citizenship, which means you do not have to renounce your current citizenship to become a Spanish citizen. However, the laws regarding dual citizenship can be complex, and you should check with your home country to ensure that they allow for dual citizenship as well.

Reliable Information on Citizenship in Spain

For further information on citizenship in Spain, you can visit the Spanish Ministry of Justice website, which provides detailed information on the process for applying for citizenship and the requirements for eligibility. Additionally, the Spanish Embassy in your home country can also provide information and guidance on citizenship matters.


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